Indeed, Islam addresses itself to reason and keeps in harmony with man's natural character and never seeks to impose undue burdens and intolerable restrictions Omran, In favour of permissibility is the fact that by using spermicides there is no physical occlusion of the natural genital tract and very little interference with cohabitation. A man is not allowed to use any method in view of the ban of castration in the Torah Holy Scriptures, Leviticus The search focused on publications between and , although some materials from the first part of the 20th century were also utilized. All religions have focused on sexuality and its moral regulation, considering the sacred origin of life—a gift from God—a basic concept and a cornerstone of religiosity. In this respect humans have tried to practice contraception ever since they began to leave written records Campbell and Potts, PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, for leading articles in each field evaluated:
All religions have focused on sexuality and its moral regulation, considering the sacred origin of life—a gift from God—a basic concept and a cornerstone of religiosity. Finally, although religious ethics have had a major influence on how humans view sexuality, today secular morality is gaining momentum. Sexuality after menopause During the second part of the 20th century two major events substantially modified the population pyramid of western countries: The search focused on publications between and , although some materials from the first part of the 20th century were also utilized. Islam took, from the beginning, a positive position: She believes that it is hardly plausible that women ever lived full happy lives in societies in which their need for sexual satisfaction, their interest in avoiding pain and suffering, and their desire for control over their bodies and lives were routinely ignored. Purdy recently pointed out that sexuality focused on reproduction must have frustrated women throughout human history. The possibility of reproduction with only one or even no gametes, although highly controversial and not yet feasible, is nonetheless being investigated. This review summarizes social and ethical commentaries on the new relationship between sex and reproduction. Anthropological facts, philosophical reflections and ethical norms and religious dictates must also be taken into consideration. With regard to the most common female methods, intrauterine devices and hormonal contraceptives can be utilized if there is an indication Schenker and Halperin, RESULTS The classic picture of sex for reproduction and bonding between mating partners is increasingly being replaced by reproduction separate from sexual activity. After this, a search was carried out through major bio-medical data bases: Indeed, Islam addresses itself to reason and keeps in harmony with man's natural character and never seeks to impose undue burdens and intolerable restrictions Omran, Since ancient times, Judaism has taken a detailed position on family planning. Fertility control The importance of controlling fertility as a means to improve the quality of life of people in general and of women in particular was clearly understood well before effective methods became available and population explosion made some form of birth control mandatory. First and foremost, as a rule, abstinence because of economic difficulties and inconvenience of child-raising is not acceptable. By necessity, the focus here will be limited to the three major monotheistic religions; for details on sexuality and religious ethics, the reader is referred to recently published reviews Schenker, ; Serour, ; Benagiano and Mori, Specifically a review of religious attitudes toward the new horizons of human reproduction is fundamental to the understanding of an evolving human sexuality, because, by and large, religions continue to oppose change in how humans view sexuality. It is important to stress that this new reality benefited every member of a family: This epochal change has been made possible by enormous progress in the understanding of reproductive processes, followed by a newfound ability to modify them. Although not every advance in assisted reproduction produced, per se, a further separation from sexual intercourse, these two fundamental human activities are today increasingly carried out independently, as reproduction is possible, not only without sex, but even through the intervention of more than two partners. These may be biological, psychological and socio-relational and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle, inducing significant changes in desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction Nappi, For many women sexuality may become critical at menopausal transition with several factors contributing to shape future sexuality. Particularly important, in her view, would have been the attempt to maintain at least the degree of bodily integrity necessary for ensuring healthy intervals between pregnancies. In favour of permissibility is the fact that by using spermicides there is no physical occlusion of the natural genital tract and very little interference with cohabitation. A man is not allowed to use any method in view of the ban of castration in the Torah Holy Scriptures, Leviticus
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