Each finger may move independently of the others, though the muscle bulks that move each finger may be partly blended, and the tendons may be attached to each other by a net of fibrous tissue, preventing completely free movement. These are the distal phalanx, carrying the nail, the middle phalanx, and the proximal phalanx. The intrinsic muscle groups are the thenar and hypothenar muscles thenar referring to the thumb, hypothenar to the small finger , the dorsal and palmar interossei muscles between the metacarpal bones and the lumbrical muscles. The extensors are located on the back of the forearm and are connected in a more complex way than the flexors to the dorsum of the fingers. Diabetics often use the fingers to obtain blood samples for regular blood sugar testing. The thumb has two extensors in the forearm; the tendons of these form the anatomical snuff box.
Clinical significance Anomalies, injuries and diseases Radiograph of Type 1 Syndactyly A rare anatomical variation affects 1 in humans, in which the individual has more than the usual number of digits; this is known as polydactyly. The fingers have two long flexors, located on the underside of the forearm. Raynaud's phenomenon and Paroxysmal hand hematoma are neurovascular disorders that affects the fingers. Also, the index finger and the little finger have an extra extensor, used for instance for pointing. The thumb has two extensors in the forearm; the tendons of these form the anatomical snuff box. The long tendons that deliver motion from the forearm muscles may be observed to move under the skin at the wrist and on the back of the hand. Skin Aside from the genitals , the fingertips possess the highest concentration of touch receptors and thermoreceptors among all areas of the human skin,[ citation needed ] making them extremely sensitive to temperature, pressure, vibration, texture and moisture. The deep flexor attaches to the distal phalanx, and the superficial flexor attaches to the middle phalanx. They insert by tendons to the phalanges of the fingers. Skeleton Illustration depicting the bones of the human hand The thumb connected to the trapezium is located on one of the sides, parallel to the arm. The pulp of a finger is the fleshy mass on the palmar aspect of the extremity of the finger. However, in some languages the translated version of fingers can mean either the digits on the hand or feet. However, not only are the fingers of their hands fused, but the cortical maps of their individual fingers also form a club hand. Flexion is by far the strongest movement. The extensors are situated within 6 separate compartments. Originally it was assumed[ by whom? Recent studies suggest fingers can feel nano-scale wrinkles on a seemingly smooth surface, a level of sensitivity not previously recorded. Extra fingers can be functional. The primary function of the extensors is to straighten out the digits. The extrinsic muscles are the long flexors and extensors. The extensors are located on the back of the forearm and are connected in a more complex way than the flexors to the dorsum of the fingers. Research has linked the ratio of lengths between the index and ring fingers to higher levels of testosterone , and to various physical and behavioral traits such as penis length  and risk for development of alcohol dependence  or video game addiction. In humans, there are two large muscles that produce flexion of each finger, and additional muscles that augment the movement. They are called extrinsic because the muscle belly is located on the forearm. A damaged tendon can cause significant loss of function in fine motor control, such as with a mallet finger. The 2nd compartment contains extensors carpi radialis longus and brevis. The human thumb also has other muscles in the thenar group opponens and abductor brevis muscle , moving the thumb in opposition, making grasping possible.
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